Pathogenic microflora is the leading factor in the pathogenesis of diseases of the teeth and periodontal tissues; therefore, during treatment and prevention, a lot of emphasis should be directed at removing dental deposits and directly suppressing the vital activity of oral pathogens. Dental plaque can be controlled by mechanical means (using a toothbrush, floss, and brushes for interdental spaces) and, if necessary, by chemical means. According to numerous local and foreign studies, the most thoroughly studied, widely used, and effective antiseptic is chlorhexidine.
The molecular composition of chlorhexidine gluconate comprises dichloro-containing biguanide derivatives and is highly active in the chemical control of dental plaque. Chlorhexidine exhibits its antiseptic effect due to its ability to form chemical bonds between the positively charged drug molecule and anionic groups (phosphates, sulfates, carboxyl group), which are present in the wall of the bacterial cell. Chlorhexidine penetrates into the intracellular membranes of bacterial cells, precipitates on the cytoplasm, and infiltrates into the membrane function, contributing to a significant increase in cell permeability, altering the osmotic balance, disrupting the integrity of the cell, and precipitating the cytoplasmic contents of bacteria, destroys DNA and disrupts DNA synthesis in microorganisms, which ultimately leads to bacterial cell death. Chlorhexidine is effective on most gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, Candida fungi, dermatophytes, protozoa, lipophilic viruses, herpes viruses, etc. Chlorhexidine retains activity in the presence of pus, blood, various secretions, and organic substances. However, it does not disturb the functional activity of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.
Chlorhexidine has a bacteriostatic effect when used in low concentrations and acts as a bactericidal agent when used in higher concentrations. Due to its cationic properties, chlorhexidine is able to combine with the oral mucosa, with enamel hydroxyapatite, with a secondary film on the tooth surface, with saliva proteins, with bacteria and bacterial cellular polysaccharides. It is slowly released in the oral cavity and retains a concentration that effectively acts on microorganisms for 24 hours. This effect is called substantivity and is one of the most important properties that makes chlorhexidine the most effective antiseptic.
After a three-day application of chlorhexidine in the form of gargles, the antibacterial effect lasts for 10–14 days, and when applied for up to 9 days, the effect increases to 11 weeks.
Interaction of other drugs with chlorhexidine: incompatible with sodium lauryl sulfate (a foaming agent contained in virtually all toothpastes), incompatible with anionic fluoride, incompatible with alkali, used in a neutral medium (pH 5–8). The use of hard water reduces the bactericidal properties of chlorhexidine, ethanol enhances the antiseptic activity of chlorhexidine.
When using conventional mouthwash with chlorhexidine without additional agents, the following side effects appear: the formation of yellow or yellow-brown plaque on the surface of the teeth, prostheses, and on the back of the tongue, changing the taste sensitivity of the tongue receptors, xerostomia.
Experienced technologists from the Italian factory Betafarma developed a chlorhexidine-based hygiene complex used to prevent the formation of plaque on the teeth and orthodontic structures, protect the mucosa from inflammation in difficult to clean areas, prevent and treat oral diseases caused by the activity of pathogenic microorganisms, including after dental interventions.
The highly effective products of PRESIDENT which contain chlorhexidine are indicated for use in the prevention and complex treatment of diseases of the oral cavity. The composition of the products includes a special paste and mouthwashes – a powerful protection against bacteria.
The active components of this complex are extracts of medicinal herbs and plants from the northern part of Italy, an ecologically clean region, which guarantees a proven action without harm to human health:
PRESIDENT Effect Balm, which is a balm for the gum, is a product of enhanced action: it strengthens the gums, effectively cleans the bacterial plaque from the oral mucosa, specifically targets local inflammation sites, relieves swelling of the gums, and has a wound-healing effect. The active ingredients of the balm (Malva Sylvestris Extract 10%, Chamomilla Recutita Extract 10%, chlorhexidine concentration 0.25%) create a protective barrier that prevents the formation of inflammation. Visible result – after only 2 days of use.
PRESIDENT Antibacterial toothpaste has a special gel consistency, which allows it to stay on the gum for a long time and increases the therapeutic effects.
PRESIDENT Professional mouthwashes do not contain artificial whitening ingredients.
Citric acid is a natural component that prevents the two main processes that cause staining: denaturing of proteins to form sulfates and the occurrence of the Maillard reaction.
Xylitol (70%) helps to neutralize the acidic environment in the mouth, stimulates salivation, and fights against bacteria that cause cavity.
All PRESIDENT chlorhexidine-containing products contain a system which prevents color change and other traditional side effects, have a product shelf life of 3–5 years, which is provided by a stable formula while maintaining the useful properties of the product.